Farming is one of the main branches of agriculture in Russia. It provides about 45 percent of the total gross production, collects about 75% of fixed assets and 70% of the labor force in agriculture. The importance of farming is determined by the fact that it produces the most desired and sought products that people use in the diet of their food.
The efficiency of farming is not possible without the creation of a strong food base. For example, breeding cattle for meat production should be placed in areas where there are large pastures. A pig breeding should be focused on farming food base. Farming also depends much on natural conditions, the duration of the grazing and stabling of animals, the choice of the flock structure, its stock, fattening and breeding technology.
Farming also plays necessary role in delivery of necessary food for the population, which include meat, eggs, milk, cheese, etc., as well as raw materials for food and light industry. As well as crops, farming is spread everywhere. Meadows and pastures occupy three times more land than an arable land.
Cattle breeding is the largest branch of farming in Russia. It is highly dependent on the size and nature of the forage in different regions of the country. Cattle breeding accounts for about 60 percent of gross output in the year. Cattle are bred almost anywhere. But some areas specialize in meat production, and others - on milk or on a combination. Dairy is mostly developed in forest and forest-steppe zones. With an abundance of natural meadows, high specific gravity of different forage crops, create the most favorable conditions for the effective development of dairy production in these regions. The herds of cattle mostly consist of dairy breeds here. In the steppe regions with semi-desert areas, where there is much land under cultivation, and very little arable land with juicy fodder, meat production is more highly developed. Here herds of cattle include a greater percentage of beef calves and cows.
Pig breeding is highly developed in those parts of the country, which are dominated by the development of grain production, sugar beet, potato. In all economic areas pig farms were developed in suburban type. The basis for the feeding of pigs here are waste from the food industry and catering. The usual types for breeding are meat, lard, bacon and ham pigs.
Sheep breeding is especially popular in dry foothills, steppe and mountain areas of the country (the Lower Volga region, Northern Caucasus, Southern Urals, etc.). Here is a profile sheep farming industry. Farmers breed a wide variety of species here (fine-fleeced, sheep-skin coat, coarse, meat).
Poultry breeding industry is very developed in the grain-growing regions of Russia. It is also tied to the places of consumption of the product (densely populated areas and cities) - places of export of the final product.
Reindeer breeding is very popular in the North of Russia.
Horse breeding is especially developed in the south of the Ural, Siberia and the North Caucasus.